Firo B

Will Schutz presented FIRO theory, and the personality assessment instrument FIRO-B to social psychology in 1958.  The theory encompasses the dimensions of Inclusion, Affection and Control:

– Need for Inclusion, whether one wants to be “in” or “out” of a particular group

– Need for Affection, whether one wants to be “close” or “distant”

– Need for Control, whether one wants to be “up” or “down”


FIRO-B measures these three dimensions from two perspectives, Expressed and Wanted:

  • Expressed behavior – behavior one feels most comfortable showing
  • Wanted behavior – behavior one wants to be demonstrated by others

The Firo-B helps people to:

  • Understand their styles and resulting behaviour
  • Understand their needs and expectations from others
  • Recognize the value of different styles

Organizations use the Firo-B for:

  • Leadership development – increasing self-awareness and interpersonal effectiveness
  • Team building and team development – enhancing compatibility, communication and decision making
  • Relationship coaching – identifying and resolving possible sources of incompatibility


  • Offers insights into interpersonal needs and behaviours
  • Provides practical suggestions for improving relationships and increasing effectiveness
  • Examines relationship styles, while other personality instruments may focus on individual characteristics